What Is a Soft-Tissue Biopsy?
A soft-tissue biopsy is the removal and microscopic examination of a small sample of soft tissue for diagnostic purposes. Soft tissue includes the skin, fat, muscle and tendons that surround, connect or support other tissues or organs. Soft-tissue biopsies require little time or involvement from the patient. They enable the foot and ankle surgeon to reach an accurate diagnosis and to determine the best treatment for the specific condition.
Conditions Identified by Soft-Tissue Biopsies
- Freckles (macules)
- Benign pigmented, or colored, spots (moles or nevus)
- Fungal or bacterial infections
- Rashes (such as eczema or dermatitis)
- Lesions related to a disease affecting the entire body (such as diabetes)
- Nodular conditions (such as a ganglion cyst, lipoma or fibroma)
- Toenail conditions (onychomycosis, psoriasis)
- Wart-like growths on the skin (benign keratoses)
- Premalignant conditions (actinic and seborrheic keratoses)
What Does the Biopsy Involve?
A biopsy involves removal of a small piece of tissue and takes just a few minutes. The procedure performed will depend on the tissue to be sampled. After numbing the area, the surgeon performs one of the following:
Shave biopsy. A thin piece of tissue is shaved off.
Punch biopsy. A small, round instrument removes a tiny core of tissue. Stitches may be needed.
Incisional or excisional biopsy. A piece, or the entire lesion, is removed. Stitches are often needed.
Once the sample is obtained, the surgeon sends it to a clinical laboratory so that the condition can be identified. The specimen will be examined by a pathologist who specializes in evaluating soft-tissue biopsies.
After the Biopsy
Patients should follow the instructions provided by the surgeon for care of the biopsy site. If the area has stitches, an appointment will be scheduled for their removal. It usually takes several days for the lab results to arrive at the surgeon’s office. If the patient has not heard about the results after 10 days, the surgeon’s office should be contacted. Biopsy results as well as additional treatment that may be required will generally be discussed.